At Dibaq Aquaculture we have been formulating quality products for the different species of aquaculture fish from around the world for more than 30 years. Among these species is the Asian sea bass (Lates calcarifer), better known as barramundi, which is produced in the area of Southeast Asia. This carnivorous fish is a species that adapts very well to captive production conditions and obtains a great yield with quality extruded feed, growing rapidly and reaching commercial size (350 g – 3 kg) between six months and two years. 

In order to achieve an effective extruded feed and satisfy our customers in Asia, at Dibaq Aquaculture we focus deeply on fully understanding the nutritional needs and requirements of each species at the different stages of production, in this case the barramundi.

Regarding protein levels, due to the carnivorous nature of this species, it has a relatively high protein requirement. Protein requirements are typically above 45%. If we talk about fat levels, we have verified after various trials and confirmed with our clients, that the best results in terms of performance have been seen in fat profiles between 10% and 18%, with the levels of EPA and DHA above 1,5%.
With reference to micronutrients, vitamins such as vitamin C, are very important for proper growth and avoid deformities at an early age. Inclusion of a level of 500 to 700 mg/kg of diet favored normal growth. As for the rest of the vitamins, for example pantothenic acid, inositol, vitamin E and pyridoxine, they are also necessary for normal growth. Among the most important minerals, phosphorus and zinc must reach correct levels as well.

Within our range of products for this species, we have the best raw materials, of excellent quality, to be able to reach and exceed the necessary levels and profiles of macronutrients and micronutrients to achieve a complete feed and with it a rapid and correct development of the barramundi.

However, we cannot forget that, in intensive production, it is very important to know the possible pathologies that can affect each species. Knowing the pathogens, the symptoms, ways of transmission of the pathogen, etc., is necessary to achieve a rapid and effective diagnosis in the event that the disease is established. However, it is also necessary to prevent the appearance of any disease through biosecurity measures, management, etc., and thus avoid mortality.


The predominant parasites of this species are Protozoa, Mixozoa and Monogenea, ectoparasites of skin and gills.

The most abundant are the Monogeneans, external pathogens such as Pseudorhabdosynochus epinepheli, Pseudorhabdosynochus lantauensis, Benedenia epinepheli and Neobenedenia melleni, the latter one of the most common in marine farms. They are large parasites that are provided with hooks that can cause significant damage to the host during their feeding activity in cases with a high prevalence. Affected fish quickly become inappetent, lethargic, with anemic and swollen gills, and develop exophthalmos, erosions of the skin and body.

As for protozoa, ectoparasites as well, which can cause significant illness and mortality in RAS systems with tanks or ponds that, with a high density, will have the ideal conditions for their appearance. Heavy infestations of protozoan parasites cause irritation and tissue responses such as hyperplasia, edema, increased mucus, hydropic degeneration, and necrosis, all in both the skin and gills. Among these parasites we find Cryptocaryon irritans, Trichodina spp. and Trypanosoma spp. These parasites usually proliferate with oxigen concentrations below 4 ppm, densities above 80kg/m3, dirty water, stressful situations…

Within the internal parasites we also find Coccidiosis due to Eimeria spp., whose infestation is usually associated with serious pathology and significant mortality in small barramundis.

At Dibaq Aquaculture, we once again mention the importance of proper nutrition and health of aquaculture species, factors that the Animal Nutrition, Health and Welfare Department covers throughout our wide range of products, since we know the species to which our high quality products are aimed. In addition to having services such as pathology, diagnosis and treatment of diseases, advice on the production of the installation and training in aquaculture welfare, health and biosafety for our clients.